Particle-resolved Direct Numerical Simulations
A particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PRDNS) is a simulation in which the details of the flow around the particles are resolved. An overset grid method for PRDNS has been developed. Papers and movies:
Particle-resolved direct numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence modified by small fixed spheres. A.W. Vreman, J. Fluid Mech. 796, 40-85 (2016). PDF
A staggered overset grid method for resolved simulation of incompressible flow around moving spheres. A.W. Vreman, J. Comp. Phys. 333, 269-296 (2017). PDF. Simulation data of various test cases reported in the paper can be downloaded here.
Turbulent channel flow past a moving array of spheres. A.W. Vreman and J.G.M. Kuerten, J. Fluid. Mech. 856, 580-632 (2018). PDF. The movie below shows the streamwise velocity in part of the domain.